Israel 586-445 B.C.

Av Ha’rachamim/Padre de Compasión/Yaakov Shwekey/Español

This article has been a very difficult one for me to compose and publish. As I watched the different videos that showed the inhumanity of Germany and the Nazis toward the Jews, it affected me in a way that I had not expected. My question to myself was, how could a “so-called” Christian nation be so terrible to a group of people, the Jews, solely because of the ethnicity of the Jews? I watched videos on the trials and hangings of German soldiers. Some of the soldiers were young men, and some were old men; it made no sense to me.

My father knew a man who was in Berlin during the 1930s. He mentioned how Hitler had such a hypnotizing effect on the people of Germany who went to hear “the Fuhrer” speak. I remember a program that said that as Hitler was rising to his political fame, that he won one of those elections by one vote. Can anyone imagine how much different the world would be today if that one winning vote had been changed to Hitler’s opposing candidate?

In the 1920s, Mussolini’s “black shirts” helped to push him to political power in Italy. At the same time, Hitler’s “brown shirts” helped him in his rise to power in Germany. I am very concerned about the “black hoodies” that are seen so often in media news reports in America today.

The Great Depression of America which began in 1929 had a world-wide effect. The Jews of Germany had fared better financially than had most German citizens. Because of the prosperity of the Jews, and for other reasons of ethnic prejudice, they were targeted by the Nazis for extermination, which led to the murders of more than six million Jewish men, women and children. Yes! The Holocaust was a real event.

In order for anyone to have a proper understanding of the people of Israel, and Jews throughout the world, it is very important to understand that the Jews are a religious people. Without that understanding, there can be no intimate knowledge of “God’s chosen people.” Jews have a deep respect for parents, and their elders. Young Jews are careful to not show a lack of proper respect for other Jews, and have a deep appreciation for parents and elders. Jews have a great respect for God’s Word. They have a belief that, from Moses through the last prophet, God gave them the ways of life and culture that were designed to make them a holy and righteous people.

History shows that Jews have fared well in life. The “Israelites” have always believed that they are “God’s chosen people” (Deuteronomy 7:6), with such a promise for the coming of the Messiah through the Jewish bloodline, and for a special place of blessing for Jews during the eternal Kingdom of God. They also believe that by being the chosen people of God, there will be harsh punishment for people who treat the Jews poorly (Zechariah 2:8).

Jews are very particular in their keeping of the “feasts of the Lord.” They believe that they are to keep the “feasts of God,” forever (Leviticus 23:31, 37, 41) (i.e., Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, etc.)

Jews believe in the authority of the prophet, priest and King. The prophet represents God to the Jews. The priest represents the Jews to God. The King is God, and is over all of His creation.

There were three Jews who were prophets of God to Israel during the time that the Jews were in exile in Babylon.

Jeremiah – He was a prophet to Jews in Judea and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 640-570 B.C.

Ezekiel – He was a prophet to Jews captive in Babylon, and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 623-570 B.C.

Daniel – He was a prophet to Jews captive in Babylon, and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 620-533 B.C.

Going back to 722 B.C., Shalmanezer, King of Assyria, captured Samaria (the northern ten tribes of Israel) and carried Israel away into exile to Assyria (2 Kings 17:1-6). The Jews of Jerusalem/Judah were taken into exile to Babylon, beginning in 597 until 586 B.C. Their return to Jerusalem began in 536 B.C, when King Cyrus of Persia issued an edict, allowing the return of the Jews to Jerusalem. The return was in stages of events until 445 B.C., after the temple had been rebuilt (515 B.C.), and after Nehemiah had completed the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, that had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C. Jeremiah wrote in 607 B.C., that the time was soon coming for the Jews to spend 70 years of captivity in Babylon (Jeremiah 25:11). He also wrote of the same captivity in 599 BC. (Jeremiah 29:10). In 538 B.C., Daniel discovered those writings of Jeremiah (Daniel 9:2).

From 722 B.C., until 445 B.C., the Jews were subservient to other world empires. Those powers were Egypt, Assyria, Babylon and Medo-Persia. Greece and Rome would follow.

Please allow me to provide a note concerning dates in this article. A lot of time was spent trying to be as correct as possible for the dates of the events that are shown. But, I have found that not all historians agree on all dates. However, the varying dates are close enough for an accurate story to be told. One source states that, beginning in 721 B.C., Assyria began moving Gentiles into the vacated lands of Northern Israel.



Israel 931-586 B.C.

Hatikva- Israeli national anthem

Look Back: Israel 1446 B.C. to 931 B.C.

This introduction reviews the years of Israel that go back to the year of 1446 B.C. The Israelites had been living under bondage in Egypt for more than 400 years. They were in the desert, after having fled Egypt. The Jews were being led by Moses, who is considered by Jews to be a prophet of God to Israel. The account of the exodus of Israel from Egypt is provided in the following link:

Moses died in the year of 1406 B.C. His successor was Joshua, who led the Israelites across the Jordan River into the land of Canaan in the year of 1406 B.C. The story of Joshua’s leadership of the Israelites is provided in the following link:

The history of the Israelites, from their entry into Canaan, until their final exile in 586 B.C., is provided in the following link:

The Israelites believed that they were “God’s chosen people;” that God spoke those words to Moses; that they were written by Moses in the Jewish writings (Deuteronomy 7:6 of the Tanakh); and were spoken by Moses to the Israelites while they were in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan. See the following link for the words of Deuteronomy 7:6 of: The Book of D’varim (Deuteronomy): Chapter 7, of the Torah – Pentateuch: of the Tanakh. The Christian Bible also contains the book of Deuteronomy.

The Jews believed, and still believe, that they were chosen by God to bring the Messiah into the world, hence, “God’s chosen people.” God’s chosen people have been known as Hebrews, Israelites and Jews, per the following link:

In the Bible, Jews were called Hebrews or Children of Israel. The terms “Jew” and “Judaism” come from the tribe or kingdom of Judah.

The Jews also believed that they were chosen by God to live in the land of Canaan, as was spoken by God to Abraham, Issac and Jacob (Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 17:22; Genesis 26:3-5, 24; Genesis 27:28-29; Genesis 28:14-15). The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy were written by Moses in the years 1450-1410 B.C.; Jews believe that God spoke the words of those books to him. (Documented in notes by Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary). The following link describes Canaan as being the land that God had promised to the Jews.

The Promised Land

The history of the Jewish people begins with Abraham, and the story of Abraham begins when G-d tells him to leave his homeland, promising Abraham and his descendants a new home in the land of Canaan. (Gen. 12). This is the land now known as Israel, named after Abraham’s grandson, whose descendants are the Jewish people. The land is often referred to as the Promised Land because of G-d’s repeated promise (Gen. 12:7, 13:15, 15:18, 17:8) to give the land to the descendants of Abraham.

It is important to know that Jews wrote and maintained the books of the Tanakh. Christians refer to those writings as being the Old Testament of the Bible. The following information provides information on the Tenakh:

Hebrew Bible: Torah, Prophets and Writings

The Bible, also known as Tanakh, is the founding document of the Jews.

The Hebrew Bible, also known as Mikra (“what is read”) or TaNaKh, an acronym referring to the traditional Jewish division of the Bible into Torah (Teaching), Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings), is the founding document of the people of Israel, describing its origins, history and visions of a just society.

Israel: From 931 B.C. to 586 B.C.

When the first dispersal of the Jews occurred in 722 B.C., by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria, those conquered Jews were living in the northern kingdom of Israel. The record of the northern Jews being carried away into exile into Assyria can be found in 2 Kings 17:1-41. The account of the 722 B.C. diaspora was documented by Jeremiah, who was believed by the Jews to be a prophet of God to the Jews. From Assyria, the scattering of Jews continued throughout much of the middle east and Europe. The land in which those Jews had settled, and from where they were dispersed, was known as Samaria, hence, the name “Samaritans” (We’ve all heard about the story of the “good Samaritan).

It was after the death of Israel’s King Solomon, in 931 B.C. (1 Kings 11:43), that Israel became a divided kingdom. Ten of the twelve tribes of Israel followed King Jeroboam and settled north of Jerusalem, and became known as Israel. The remaining two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, stayed in Jerusalem, which became known as Judah, and were loyal to Rehoboam as their King,  Just as the northern ten tribes (Israel) were taken into exile in 722 B.C., the southern tribes (Judah) would be taken in exile to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar. There were three deportations of Jews from Judah, beginning in 597 BC, with the last one occurring in 586 B.C. The siege by King Nebuchadnezzar, as was stated in 2 Kings 24:10, ended with the final siege of Jerusalem that began in January, 588 B.C., and lasted for a year and a half (per Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary).

Even though the Jews had been scattered throughout much of the middle east and Europe, they were told by the prophet Ezekiel that God would return them to their promised land of Israel, per Ezekiel 36:24-29. Other Jewish prophets also provided similar words of encouragement to the Jews of Judah and Israel. The accounts of the disaspora of Judah can be found recorded in 2 Kings 24:1 through 2 Kings 25:21.

Atrocities that came upon the city of Jerusalem, the Jews and the temple, at the hands of King Nebuchadnezzar and his forces, are documented by Jeremiah in 2 Kings 24 and 2 Kings 25. In order for anyone to understand the plight of the Jews, there must be understanding of the things that happened to them as they were being forced from their city of Jerusalem, and were being taken captive to Babylon, which is located in the present day nation of Iraq. It is also important to know the things that happened to the Jews while they were held captive by the Babylonians for 70 years. Babylon was located 59 miles southwest of present-day Baghdad. Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein viewed himself as being the reincarnated King Nebuchadnezzar ( More of the story of the treatment of the dispersed Jews in Babylon can be found in the book of Daniel, which was written by a Jew who was also present in dispersed Babylon, and was viewed by Jews as being a prophet of God. Dr. John MacArthur provides excellent commentary on Chapters 24 and 25 of the book of Second Kings, and will be used in this article to point out key points of those two chapters.

It is important to remember that the writings of the Jews were maintained by the Jews. The commentaries of 2 Kings Chapters 24 and 25 will follow the words of those chapters. As a human being, I am appalled at the atrocities that the Babylonians inflicted upon the Jews. I will insert the word “Atrocity,” within the verses of text whenever such an occurrence is viewed by me. The chronology of the following events is very effective in showing the mistreatment of the Jews, who were being forced from their homes, temple and city by their Babylonian captors.

Why Did Hitler Hate Jewish People?

2 Kings 24 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Babylon Controls Jehoiakim

1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant for three years; then he turned and rebelled against him. 2 The Lord sent against him bands of Chaldeans, bands of Arameans, bands of Moabites, and bands of Ammonites. So He sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the Lord which He had spoken through His servants the prophets. 3 Surely at the command of the Lord it came upon Judah, to remove them from His sight because of the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he had done, 4 and also for the innocent blood which he shed, for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; and the Lord would not forgive. 5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?

Jehoiachin Reigns

6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers, and Jehoiachin his son became king in his place. 7 The king of Egypt did not come out of his land again, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the brook of Egypt to the river Euphrates.

8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 9 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his father had done.

Deportation to Babylon

10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon went up to Jerusalem, and the city came under siege. 11 And Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon came to the city, while his servants were besieging it. 12 Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he and his mother and his servants and his captains and his officials. So the king of Babylon took him captive in the eighth year of his reign. 13 He carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king’s house, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord had said. 14 Then he led away into exile all Jerusalem and all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land.

Atrocity: vs 10-14

15 So he led Jehoiachin away into exile to Babylon; also the king’s mother and the king’s wives and his officials and the leading men of the land, he led away into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon. 16 All the men of valor, seven thousand, and the craftsmen and the smiths, one thousand, all strong and fit for war, and these the king of Babylon brought into exile to Babylon.

Atrocity: vs 15-16

Zedekiah Made King

17 Then the king of Babylon made his uncle Mattaniah king in his place, and changed his name to Zedekiah.

18 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 19 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that Jehoiakim had done. 20 For through the anger of the Lord this came about in Jerusalem and Judah until He cast them out from His presence. And Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.

Commentary, 2 Kings 24 (Reference notes: Dr. John MacArthur)

24:1 Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar II was the son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon from 626–605 B.C. As crown prince, Nebuchadnezzar had led his father’s army against Pharaoh Necho and the Egyptians at Carchemish on the Euphrates River in northern Syria (605 B.C.). By defeating the Egyptians, Babylon was established as the strongest nation in the ancient Near East. Egypt and its vassals, including Judah, became vassals of Babylon with this victory. Nebuchadnezzar followed up his victory at Carchemish by invading the land of Judah. Later, in 605 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar took some captives to Babylon, including Daniel and his friends (cf. Dan. 1:1–3). Toward the end of 605 B.C., Nabopolassar died and Nebuchadnezzar succeeded him as king of Babylon, 3 years after Jehoiakim had taken the throne in Judah (Jer. 25:1). Nebuchadnezzar reigned from 605–562 B.C. three years. Nebuchadnezzar returned to the W in 604 B.C. and took tribute from all of the kings of the W, including Jehoiakim of Judah. Jehoiakim submitted to Babylonian rule from 604–602 B.C. In 602 B.C., Jehoiakim rebelled against Babylon, disregarding the advice of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 27:9–11).

24:2 the Lord sent…raiding bands. As punishment for Jehoiakim’s disobedience of the Lord’s Word through His prophet Jeremiah, the Lord sent Babylonian troops, along with the troops of other loyal nations, to inflict military defeats upon Judah.

24:7 king of Egypt. In 601 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar again marched W against Egypt and was turned back by strong Egyptian resistance. However Egypt, though able to defend its own land, was not able to be aggressive and recover its conquered lands or provide any help for its allies, including Judah.

24:8 eighteen. This reading is preferred over the “eight” of 2 Chr. 36:9 (see note). three months. Having regrouped, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah for a second time in the spring of 597 B.C. Before he could enter Jerusalem, Jehoiakim died and was succeeded as king of Judah by his son, Jehoiachin. Jehoiachin ruled for a short time in 597 B.C. See note on 2 Chr. 36:9, 10.

24:10–12 The Babylonian siege of Jerusalem was begun by the troops of Nebuchadnezzar. Later, Nebuchadnezzar himself went to Jerusalem and it was to the king himself that Jehoiachin surrendered (v. 12).

24:12 eighth year. 597 B.C. For the first time, the books of Kings dated an event in Israelite history by a non-Israelite king. This indicated that Judah’s exile was imminent and the land would be in the hands of Gentiles.

24:13 Nebuchadnezzar plundered the treasures of the temple and king’s palace, just as the Lord had said he would (cf. 20:16–18).

24:14–16 In 597 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar took an additional 10,000 Judeans as captives to Babylon, in particular the leaders of the nation. This included the leaders of the military and those whose skills would support the military. Included in this deportation was the prophet Ezekiel (see notes on Ezek. 1:1–3). Only the lower classes remained behind in Jerusalem. The Babylonian policy of captivity was different from that of the Assyrians, who took most of the people into exile and resettled the land of Israel with foreigners (17:24). The Babylonians took only the leaders and the strong, while leaving the weak and poor, elevating those left to leadership and thereby earning their loyalty. Those taken to Babylon were allowed to work and live in the mainstream of society. This kept the captive Jews together, so it would be possible for them to return, as recorded in Ezra.

24:17 Mattaniah…Zedekiah. Mattaniah was a son of Josiah and an uncle of Jehoiachin (cf. 1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 1:3). Mattaniah’s name, meaning “gift of the Lord,” was changed to Zedekiah, “righteousness of the Lord.” Nebuchadnezzar’s changing of Zedekiah’s name demonstrated his authority as lord over him (see note on 23:34). See notes on 2 Chr. 36:11–21.

24:18 eleven years. Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem, under Babylonian sovereignty, from 597–586 B.C.

24:20 Zedekiah rebelled. In 588 B.C., Apries (also called Hophra), the grandson of Necho, became Pharaoh over Egypt. He appears to have influenced Zedekiah to revolt against Babylon (cf. Ezek. 17:15–18).

2 Kings 25 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Nebuchadnezzar Besieges Jerusalem

1 Now in the ninth year of his reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, camped against it and built a siege wall all around it. 2 So the city was under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. 3 On the ninth day of the fourth month the famine was so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. 4 Then the city was broken into, and all the men of war fled by night by way of the gate between the two walls beside the king’s garden, though the Chaldeans were all around the city. And they went by way of the Arabah. 5 But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king and overtook him in the plains of Jericho and all his army was scattered from him. 6 Then they captured the king and brought him to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and he passed sentence on him. 7 They slaughtered the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, then put out the eyes of Zedekiah and bound him with bronze fetters and brought him to Babylon.

Atrocity: vs 1-7

Jerusalem Burned and Plundered

8 Now on the seventh day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. 9 He burned the house of the Lord, the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every great house he burned with fire. 10 So all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls around Jerusalem. 11 Then the rest of the people who were left in the city and the deserters who had deserted to the king of Babylon and the rest of the people, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away into exile. 12 But the captain of the guard left some of the poorest of the land to be vinedressers and plowmen.

Atrocity: vs 8-12

13 Now the bronze pillars which were in the house of the Lord, and the stands and the bronze sea which were in the house of the Lord, the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried the bronze to Babylon. 14 They took away the pots, the shovels, the snuffers, the spoons, and all the bronze vessels which were used in temple service. 15 The captain of the guard also took away the firepans and the basins, what was fine gold and what was fine silver. 16 The two pillars, the one sea, and the stands which Solomon had made for the house of the Lord—the bronze of all these vessels was beyond weight. 17 The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and a bronze capital was on it; the height of the capital was three cubits, with a network and pomegranates on the capital all around, all of bronze. And the second pillar was like these with network.

Atrocity: vs 13-17

18 Then the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest, with the three officers of the temple. 19 From the city he took one official who was overseer of the men of war, and five of the king’s advisers who were found in the city; and the scribe of the captain of the army who mustered the people of the land; and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. 20 Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard took them and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. 21 Then the king of Babylon struck them down and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was led away into exile from its land.

Atrocity: vs 18-21

Gedaliah Made Governor

22 Now as for the people who were left in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left, he appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan over them. 23 When all the captains of the forces, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah governor, they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, namely, Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of the Maacathite, they and their men. 24 Gedaliah swore to them and their men and said to them, “Do not be afraid of the servants of the Chaldeans; live in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it will be well with you.”

25 But it came about in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family, came with ten men and struck Gedaliah down so that he died along with the Jews and the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah. 26 Then all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the forces arose and went to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans.

Atrocity: vs 25-26

27 Now it came about in the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he became king, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison; 28 and he spoke kindly to him and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babylon. 29 Jehoiachin changed his prison clothes and had his meals in the king’s presence regularly all the days of his life; 30 and for his allowance, a regular allowance was given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life.

Commentary, 2 Kings 25 (Reference notes: Dr. John MacArthur)

25:1 ninth year. Responding to Zedekiah’s rebellion (24:20), Nebuchadnezzar sent his whole army to lay siege against the city of Jerusalem. The siege began in the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign, Jan., 588 B.C. The “siege wall” was comprised of either wood towers higher than the walls of the city or a dirt rampart encircling the city

25:2 eleventh year. Jerusalem withstood the siege until the 11th year of Zedekiah, July, 586 B.C. Hezekiah’s tunnel guaranteed the city an uninterrupted supply of fresh water (20:20) and an Egyptian foray into Judah gave the city a temporary reprieve from the siege (Jer. 37:5)
25:3 famine. After a siege of 2½ years, the food supply in Jerusalem ran out (Jer. 38:2, 3).

25:4 the city wall was broken. The two walls near the king’s garden were probably located at the extreme SE corner of the city, giving direct access to the Kidron Valley. This gave Zedekiah and his soldiers an opportunity to flee for their lives to the E.

25:5 plains of Jericho. Zedekiah fled toward the Jordan Rift Valley. Babylonian pursuers caught him in the Jordan Valley S of Jericho, about 20 mi. E of Jerusalem.

25:6 Riblah. Located on the Orontes River about 180 mi. N of Jerusalem, Riblah was Nebuchadnezzar’s military headquarters for his invasion of Judah. This location was ideally situated as a field headquarters for military forces because ample provisions could be found nearby (cf. 23:33). The captured traitor Zedekiah was brought to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, where he was blinded after witnessing the death of his sons. The execution of the royal heirs ensured the impossibility of a future claim to the throne or rebellion from his descendants. The blinding made his own future rebellion or retaliation impossible. Jeremiah had warned Zedekiah that he would see Nebuchadnezzar (see notes on Jer. 32:2–5; 34:3), while Ezekiel had said he would not see Babylon (see note on Ezek. 12:10–13). Both prophecies were accurately fulfilled.

25:8 seventh day. See note on Jer. 52:12. This was Aug., 586 B.C., one month after the Babylonian breakthrough of Jerusalem’s walls (vv. 2–4). Nebuzaradan. He was the commander of Nebuchadnezzar’s own imperial guard, sent by the king to oversee the destruction of Jerusalem. The dismantling and destruction of Jerusalem was accomplished by the Babylonians in an orderly progression.

25:9 First, Jerusalem’s most important buildings were burned.

25:10 Second, the Babylonian army tore down Jerusalem’s outer walls, the city’s main defense.

25:11, 12 Third, Nebuzaradan organized and led a forced march of remaining Judeans into exile in Babylon. The exiles included survivors from Jerusalem and those who had surrendered to the Babylonians before the capture of the city. Only poor, unskilled laborers were left behind to tend the vineyards and farm the fields.

25:13–17 Fourth, the items made with precious metals in the temple were carried away to Babylon. See notes on 1 Kin. 7:15–49.

25:18–21 Fifth, Nebuzaradan took Jerusalem’s remaining leaders to Riblah, where Nebuchadnezzar had them executed. This insured that they would never lead another rebellion against Babylon.

25:18 Seraiah. Seraiah was the grandson of Hilkiah (22:4, 8; 1 Chr. 6:13, 14) and an ancestor of Ezra (Ezra 7:1). Even though Seraiah was executed, his sons were deported (1 Chr. 6:15).

25:21 Judah…carried away captive. Exile was the ultimate curse brought upon Judah because of her disobedience to the Mosaic Covenant (cf. Lev. 26:33; Deut. 28:36, 64). The book of Lamentations records the sorrow of Jeremiah over this destruction of Jerusalem.

25:22–30 The books of Kings conclude with this brief epilogue. Despite the punishment of the Lord experienced by Israel and Judah, the people were still rebellious (vv. 22–26). However, due to the Lord’s mercy, the house of David endured (vv. 27–30). The books of Kings end with a note of hope.

25:22 Gedaliah. In an attempt to maintain political stability, Nebuchadnezzar appointed a governor from an important Judean family. A more detailed account of Gedaliah’s activities is found in Jer. 40:7—41:18. Gedaliah’s grandfather, Shaphan, was Josiah’s secretary, who had implemented that king’s reforms (22:3). His father, Ahikam, was part of Josiah’s delegation sent to Huldah (22:14) and a supporter of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 26:24).

25:23 Mizpah. Located about 8 mi. N of Jerusalem, Mizpah became the new center of Judah. Mizpah might have been one of the few towns left standing after the Babylonian invasion.

25:24 oath. As governor, Gedaliah pledged to the remaining people that loyalty to the Babylonians would ensure their safety.

25:25 seventh month. October, 586 B.C., two months after the destruction of Jerusalem (cf. v. 8). Ishmael. Elishama, Ishmael’s grandfather, was a secretary under Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12; 41:1). Ishmael probably assassinated Gedaliah because he wished to reestablish the kingship in Judah with himself as king, since he was of royal blood (cf. Jer. 41:1).

25:26 went to Egypt. Fearing reprisals from the Babylonians, the people fled to Egypt.

25:27 thirty-seventh year. March, 561 B.C. Jehoiachin was about 55 years old (cf. 24:8). Evil-Merodach. The son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, he ruled as king of Babylon from 562–560 B.C. To gain favor with the Jews, the king released Jehoiachin from his imprisonment and gave him special privileges.

25:28–30 spoke kindly to him. This good word from the king of Babylon to the surviving representative of the house of David served as a concluding reminder of God’s good Word to David. Through the curse of exile, the dynasty of David had survived. There was still hope that God’s good Word to David concerning the seed who will build God’s temple and establish God’s eternal kingdom would be fulfilled (cf. 2 Sam. 7:12–16). The book of 2 Kings opened with Elijah being carried away to heaven, the destination of all those faithful to God. The book ends with Israel, and then Judah, being carried away to pagan lands as a result of failing to be faithful to God.

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Israel, A Look Within, From Without

Israel, A Look Within, From Without

The nation of Israel is rich in culture and history. No one can deny the contributions to our world that have come from such a small nation, having such a small citizenry. Please consider the value to society that the nation of Israel has provided, in spite of the many obstacles that have been placed in its way. The opening video shows a major obstacle that the Jewish people have had to overcome. The Jewish children in Germany, in the 1930s, are seen singing Hatikvah, which would become the national anthem of the nation of Israel. Many of the children, if not all of them, would be murdered in the Nazi death camps during the Holocaust.

Click onto the following links to learn more about the Holocaust. Much of the free world remained silent as the Holocaust continued with the murders of more than six million Jews being the result.

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning “sacrifice by fire.” The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were “racially superior” and that the Jews, deemed “inferior,” were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

Consider some of the notes that were placed on You Tube.

דער שטעטל: ילדי הגימנסיה העברית בעיירה מונקאטש שבהרי הקרפטים שרים “התקווה” שנות ה’תר”צ המוקדמות, בין שתי מלחמות העולם.

Children from the Hebrew Gymnasium Singing “Hatikvah” in Munkács, the early 1930’s


1 year ago
IM crying. They sing the first version of “Hatikvah” the “religious” one. They have a heavy European accent. They were all killed in the Holocaust. I’m in tears and crying.

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Tobías Leon
Tobías Leon
1 year ago
think 90% of these kids died before 15

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Merobel luis
Merobel luis
2 years ago

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Roger Hudson
Roger Hudson
8 months ago
The most moving version of Hatikva on youtube, evidence that nazism but be total smashed. I pray for all their souls.

Tongsat Haokip
Tongsat Haokip
8 months ago
jews being God ‘s own people have been subjected to all kinds of exploitations. I really like Hatikvah it reminds me of their captivity to Babylon , the Roman invasion in 70 AD ,the Holocaust ,the Anne’s diary . i pledge for them a happy,peaceful and harmonius life forgetting their sufferings of almost 2,000 years.May God bless Israel.Amen.


As with most non-Jews, my view and perception of Israel is “from without.” As a gentile (not Jewish), having grown up in a city having a large Jewish population and influence, I have come to love the Jewish people, whether they are naturalized citizens from other countries, or if they are home-grown in my nation, The United States Of America. There are many people who live in other nations, as well as in America, who do not share my love or appreciation for Israel and its people. In this, and in following posts, I will attempt to paint a “prettier face” on a people who are, all too often, shown as having an “ugly face”in our world’s community of nations. The history of the Jews shows that the nation of Israel has often come under great oppression, from many other nations and people, with many deaths taking place. Israel is the only democratically run nation in its region of the world. A variety of sources of information will be used to show Israel in the light that I see that nation, and its people.

The nation of Israel has appx 8.6 million people, with appx 6.5 million being Jews.
The size of Israel is about the same size as that of the state of New Jersey.
Of 350 million people living in the middle east, Jews make up only about 6.5 million of the 350 million.

Consider a look at Israel, “from within.”

Israeli Arts, Culture And Literature, Culture In Israel, by Asher Weill

A review of any country’s cultural history over the last fifty years would show enormous changes – undoubtedly a quantum leap – and certainly more changes than in any other fifty year period in history. How much more so in Israel, where that same period was marked by a series of cataclysmic events which had – and are still having – an effect on the very nature and cultural character of this young but old nation.

Israel in 1948: a country of 640,000 Jews; just three years after the annihilation of six million Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe. A country on the eve of invasion by five neighboring Arab nations intent on wiping it out, or, in the words of one Arab leader, “driving the Jews into the sea.” A country in the throes of absorbing the remnant of decimated European Jewry – despoiled of all their worldly goods and brutally severed from their cultural and linguistic roots, but intent on surviving and creating a new life in the one piece of land that was prepared to accept them.

Each of the decades that followed was marked by yet more social and political convulsions. The fifties were the years of the mass immigration of Jews from Arab lands: from Morocco, from the Yemen, from Iraq; and of tens of thousands of Jews from some 70 countries worldwide, all of whom had brought with them their own language, national heritage and cultural baggage.

The sixties were, above all, marked by the military victory in the Six-Day War of 1967, when a whole new national mythos and sense of euphoria engulfed not only the Jewish population of Israel, but indeed the entire Jewish Diaspora – only to be shattered to a large extent by the Yom Kippur War of 1973 and its aftermath, some of the effects of which are still very much with us nearly three decades later. The seventies and the eighties saw the first tentative bridges to peace with the Arab world, beginning with the historic visit to Israel of President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt in 1977.

History of Israel, Its Diaspora and Return, 722 B.C., forward

Ancient Jewish History: The Diaspora

The Jewish state comes to an end in 70 AD, when the Romans begin to actively drive Jews from the home they had lived in for over a millennium. But the Jewish Diaspora (“diaspora” =”dispersion, scattering”) had begun long before the Romans had even dreamed of Judaea. When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 722, the Hebrew inhabitants were scattered all over the Middle East; these early victims of the dispersion disappeared utterly from the pages of history. However, when Nebuchadnezzar deported the Judaeans in 597 and 586 BC, he allowed them to remain in a unified community in Babylon. Another group of Judaeans fled to Egypt, where they settled in the Nile delta. So from 597 onwards, there were three distinct groups of Hebrews: a group in Babylon and other parts of the Middle East, a group in Judaea, and another group in Egypt. Thus, 597 is considered the beginning date of the Jewish Diaspora. While Cyrus the Persian allowed the Judaeans to return to their homeland in 538 BC, most chose to remain in Babylon. A large number of Jews in Egypt became mercenaries in Upper Egypt on an island called the Elephantine. All of these Jews retained their religion, identity, and social customs; both under the Persians and the Greeks, they were allowed to run their lives under their own laws. Some converted to other religions; still others combined the Yahweh cult with local cults; but the majority clung to the Hebraic religion and its new-found core document, the Torah.

In 63 BC, Judaea became a protectorate of Rome. Coming under the administration of a governor, Judaea was allowed a king; the governor’s business was to regulate trade and maximize tax revenue. While the Jews despised the Greeks, the Romans were a nightmare. Governorships were bought at high prices; the governors would attempt to squeeze as much revenue as possible from their regions and pocket as much as they could. Even with a Jewish king, the Judaeans revolted in 70 AD, a desperate revolt that ended tragically. In 73 AD, the last of the revolutionaries were holed up in a mountain fort called Masada; the Romans had besieged the fort for two years, and the 1,000 men, women, and children inside were beginning to starve. In desperation, the Jewish revolutionaries killed themselves rather than surrender to the Romans. The Romans then destroyed Jerusalem, annexed Judaea as a Roman province, and systematically drove the Jews from Palestine. After 73 AD, Hebrew history would only be the history of the Diaspora as the Jews and their world view spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe. Sources: The Hebrews: A Learning Module from Washington State University

The most direct way of discussing the diaspora of the Jews is to use the Complete Jewish Bible, which was translated into English by Dr. David H. Stern, who was born a Jew, and lives in Israel. As you can see, a bible is a book; it is a book that is regarded as being one of authority. The Jewish writings have been maintained by the Jews; the original languages were Hebrew and Aramaic. In approximately 405 A.D., those writings were translated into Latin by Jerome.

Comments in this article will be made relative to the situations in which the Jewish people found themselves during their diaspora. There may be different views and understandings of the Jewish writings but, one thing is certain; they were written by Jews, and from a Jewish point of understanding and perspective.

Consider the following comments on the word, “bible.”

Bible – definition of Bible in English | Oxford Dictionaries

Consider the following uses of “bible.”

A book regarded as authoritative in a particular sphere.

The Jewish scriptures, consisting of the Torah or Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa or Writings.

‘A cooking bible can be so helpful when it comes to unusual ingredients, and cooking techniques.’
‘But I was also obsessed with the possibility of the future turning out to be horrible – so I carried around 1984, Farenheit 451 and Brave New World like they were my Bibles.’
‘This is the bible of cooking – as simple or as complicated as you care to get.’
‘The book became the bible of the democracy movement, and the city a place of pilgrimage for human rights activists.’
‘My bible is Mastering The Art Of French Cooking, a two-volume cookery book I was given at 25.’


Translated by Dr. David H. Stern

Version Information

Presenting the Word of God as a unified Jewish book, the Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) is a translation for Jews and non-Jews alike. It connects readers with the Jewishness of the Messiah. Names and key terms are returned to their original Hebrew and presented in easy-to-understand transliterations, enabling the reader to say them the way Yeshua (Jesus) did.

The CJB is a translation of the Bible into English by Dr. David H. Stern. It consists of Dr. Stern’s revised translation of the Old Testament (Tanakh) plus his original Jewish New Testament (B’rit Hadashah) translation in one volume. It was published in its entirety in 1998 by Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc.

The Old Testament translation is a paraphrase of the public domain 1917 Jewish Publication Society version. The New Testament section is Dr. Stern’s original translation from the ancient Greek.

Dr. Stern’s purpose for producing the Complete Jewish Bible was “to restore God’s Word to its original Jewish context and culture as well as be in easily read modern English.”

The CJB follows the order and the names of the Old Testament books in the Jewish Bible, rather than those of typical Christian Bibles. It uses Hebrew names for people and places, such as Eliyahu for “Elijah”, and Sha’ul for “Saul.” The work also incorporates Hebrew and Yiddish expressions, such as matzah for “unleavened bread” and mikveh for “ritual immersion pool”.

The calendar begins.

722 B.C. Assyrians deported 27,290 inhabitants of Israel to distant locations, from which many of them have remained until this day.

“In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Ashur captured Shomron. He carried Isra’el away captive to Ashur, resettling them in Halach, in Havor on the Gozan River and in the cities of the Medes.” (2 Kings 17:6)

17:6 king of Assyria. Sargon II (see note on 17:3). carried Israel away. The capture of Samaria marked the end of the northern kingdom. According to Assyrian records, the Assyrians deported 27,290 inhabitants of Israel to distant locations. The relocation of populations was characteristic of Assyrian policy during that era. The Israelites were resettled in the upper Tigris-Euphrates Valley and never returned to the Promised Land. “Halah” was a city NE of Nineveh. The “Habor” River was a northern tributary of the Euphrates. The “cities of the Medes” were NE of Nineveh. Samaria was resettled with foreigners (v. 24). God did what He said He would do in Deut. 28. The Jews were carried as far E as Susa, where the book of Esther later took place. (The author of 2 Kings was the prophet Jeremiah, ca. 550 B.C., per Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary, deceased.)

The buildup to the deportation of the Jews starts with the death of King Solomon, ca. 931 B.C., 1 Kings 11:43. At that time, there were twelve tribes of Israel, with all of them living in, or around Jerusalem, in Israel; they were a unified kingdom. Soon, thereafter, they became a divided kingdom. Rehoboam and Jeroboam were both kings reigning in Israel’s divided kingdom. Rehoboam was one of Solomon’s sons and king of Judah in the south (1 Kings 11:43). Jeroboam was one of Solomon’s former officials, an Ephraimite, and king of Israel in the north (1 Kings 11:26). The two southern tribes, Judah and Benjamin, remained at Jerusalem, and were called “Judah.” The northern tribes became known as “Israel,” and settled in Samaria. (1 Kings 12:16-20; 1 Kings 14:21-24). Jeroboam reigned until his death in 910 B.C., 1 Kings 14:20. Rehoboam reigned until his death in 913 B.C., 1 Kings 14:31. From that point in time, forward, other kings assumed leadership of the northern and southern tribes, with a splintering of each group taking place, and the first deportation of Jews taking place in 722 B.C., with the ten northern tribes being removed from their land, per 2 Kings 17:6. The splintering of the two southern tribes was taking place, too. The next post will discuss the effects of that dysfunction.

Food for thought.

“Jeroboam” and his ten tribes “jumped” north to Samaria. “Rehoboam” and his two tribes”remained” in Jerusalem.

Truth In Government – IRS – 080817

From CBN News

Analyst Phil Kerpen Reveals Obamacare Scheme That Gave Congress Free Health Care (August 2, 2017)

The information that is contained in this post should be important to anyone who is employed, retired, unemployed, or who may be looking for a job. It is important for citizens to be able to trust in their government.

Major news outlets did not seem to report on the following two important stories.

From Washington Times

Obama’s IRS ‘misled’ Obamacare customers: Audit Search

By Stephen Dinan – The Washington Times – Thursday, August 3, 2017

The Obama administration “misled” Americans into thinking signing up for Obamacare would be cheaper than it really was, according to an inspector general’s report Thursday that said the IRS dramatically understated the actual cost of enrolling.

IRS officials sent the letters to try to prod Americans to comply with the 2010 health law’s “individual mandate” that penalizes them for not holding coverage.

But as part of the letters, the IRS said most people could find plans for $75 a month or less once government subsidies were figured in.

That was untrue — in fact, the average cost was more than twice that figure, at $168 a month, the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration said.

“Many of the nearly 7.5 million taxpayers who receive letters and seek insurance may feel misled if the actual cost of their insurance is much higher than the $75 per month detailed in their notification letter,” the inspector general concluded.

The IRS said it was only using numbers provided by Department of Health and Human Services and verified by the Treasury Department. They said the $75 figure was true for some taxpayers.
The inspector general said it asked for that documentation but never received it.

Auditors said their own analysis found the HHS studies were based on a smaller sample and was limited to those who chose lower-coverage plans with fewer benefits.

According to the new audit, federal regulations require agencies to present accurate information.
Investigators uncovered the misleading information as part of a broader audit about how the IRS was handling its role in alerting Americans who aren’t complying with Obamacare’s mandate to hold insurance.

Some 19.3 million Americans ducked the Obamacare mandate in 2016, with 12.8 million claiming an exemption and 6.5 million paying the tax penalty.

The IRS was supposed to begin sending letters in June 2015 to encourage those who ducked the mandate to sign up, but the agency declined, saying it wanted to instead study behavior from Obamacare’s first full year of operations in 2014.

The agency also missed the deadline in 2016, but did send notices beginning at the end of the year.
Officials said they figured they’d get better reception if they sent them close to the time of enrollment for 2017.

Some 7.5 million letters were sent — about half in English and half in Spanish.




Bill Of Rights [First 10 Amendments]


Webster’s New Word Dictionary Of The English Language, College Edition, 1962
Civility: 1. courtesy, politeness, consideration. 2. A polite act or utterance.

Barry Farber is a Jewish talk show host. A number of years ago, while traveling home from work, I would listen to the wisdom that came through the daily broadcasts of Barry Farber. One of the most memorable subjects that I ever heard him, or anyone else say, dealt with “civility.” He discussed the importance of a society being one of civility. Most people appreciate the things of “Culture – Beauty – Arts – Technology.” But it is important for people to live in civilized society, so that they may enjoy the things of life that relate to “C-B-A-T,” whether they are related to employment or hobby.


The nation of Russia is very rich in culture, from past to present. Yet, Russians have an oppressive government which prevents its citizenry from experiencing the benefits of their long time cultural history. Check out the follow info.

Russian Culture


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Russian culture has a long history. Russia can claim a long tradition of dividend in many aspects of the arts, especially when it comes to literature and philosophy, classical music and ballet, architecture and painting, cinema and animation and politics, which all had considerable influence on world culture. The country also has a flavorful material culture and a tradition in technology.

Russian culture grew from that of the East Slavs, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the wooded areas of far Eastern Europe. Early Russian culture was much influenced by neighbouring Finno-Ugric tribes and by the nomadicpeoples of the Pontic steppe (mainly of Kipchak and Iranic origin). In the late 1st millennium AD the Varangians(supposedly Scandinavian Vikings), also took part in the forming of Russian identity and the Kievan Rus’ state. Orthodox Christian missionaries began arriving from the Eastern Roman Empire in the 9th century, and Kievan Rus’ converted to Orthodox Christianity in 988. This largely defined the Russian culture of the next millennium as the synthesis of Slavicand Byzantine cultures.[7] After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Russia remained the largest Orthodox nation in the world and claimed succession to the Byzantine legacy in the form of the Third Rome idea. At different points in its history, the country was also strongly influenced by the culture of Western Europe. Since the reforms of Peter the Great, for two centuries Russian culture largely developed in the general context of European culture rather than pursuing its own unique ways. The situation changed in the 20th century, when the Communist ideology became a major factor in the culture of the Soviet Union, where Russia, in the form of the Russian SFSR, was the largest and leading part.

Nowadays, Russian cultural heritage is ranked seventh in the Nation Brands Index, based on interviews of some 20,000 people mainly from Western countries and the Far East. Due to the relatively late involvement of Russia in modern globalization and international tourism, many aspects of Russian culture, like Russian jokes and Russian art, remain largely unknown to foreigners.


The nation of Germany also has a rich cultural history. But, because of the oppressive government of Adolph Hitler, the nation was brought to a state of shambles at the end of World War II. Check out the following info.

German Culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker (the country of poets and thinkers).
There are a number of public holidays in Germany. The country is particularly known for its traditional Oktoberfest celebrations in Munich, its carnival culture and globally influential Christmas customs known as Weihnachten. 3 October has been the national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the German Unity Day (Tag der Deutschen Einheit). The UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.
Germany is the world’s second most respected nation among 50 countries in 2013. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognized for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011, 2013, and 2014.

In order for any nation to remain free from government overreach and oppression, the government must be held in check by its own constitution. The citizenry of every free nation must also hold its elected leaders in check, through the election processes, so that its freedoms of life remain may in tact. But, in order for the people of a nation to make informed choices in elections, they must also be “informed,” of the events of their nation. Therefore, the term, “informed electorate,” has been coined.

The first amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees a free press, which has such a freedom to keep citizens informed of the actions of its government.!/amendments/1/religion-speech-press-assembly-and-petition
First Amendment to the Constitution.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Notice that the constitution protects the rights of the people from the government. A “wall of separation,” between the government and its citizens, has been established by the Bill Of Rights. The purpose of the wall is to keep the government from crossing over, and into, the rights of citizens. In other words, the Bill of Rights protects the citizenry from the government. The constitution states that the government gains its power from the people. If you take the first amendment apart, it is easy to see that the people are protected from the government by the constitution.

Even with the press being free to report the news of the government, the press has also been known to report “opinion as fact,” which is not news. Therefore, citizens must also be involved in informing other citizens of facts of the actions of the government.

Opinion, or oppression, can rob a citizenry of its access to matters of “culture, beauty, the arts, and technology.” Therefore, if an event arises that may threaten our nation’s constitutional freedoms, a blog post may be published to address that situation. Other educational posts may also be published. Opinions are always welcomed, and comments to posts are always moderated. Therefore, if anyone wants a comment to not be made public, please make that request known in the comment.